Business Energy Investment Tax Credit (ITC)

August 29, 2023


Note: The Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 (H.R. 5376) made several significant changes to this tax credit, including expanding the eligible technologies, extending the expiration date, modifying the scheduled step-down in its value, providing for new bonus credits, and establishing new criteria to qualify for the full credit. It also phases out this tax credit under section 48 of the Internal Revenue Code and replaces it with a new technology-neutral tax credit under section 48E of the Internal Revenue Code. The summary below describes the current section 48 tax credit as modified by the Inflation Reduction Act, and below that, the new 48E tax credit.   

The federal Business Energy Investment Tax Credit (ITC) has been amended a number of times, most recently and most significantly by the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022. That bill established new prevailing wage and apprenticeship requirements for larger system to qualify for the full 30% tax credit. The Department of the Treasury issued Initial Guidance on these requirements on November 30, 2022 . According to law, the labor provisions apply to projects for which construction begins 60 days or more after Treasury publishes its guidance. Given the publishing date of November 30, 2022, the effective date for the labor provisions is January 30, 2023. The credit for different project types and available bonus credits is described below.

Base Credit

Projects under 1 MW (or larger projects that are commenced no more than 60 days after the Treasury Secretary develops labor guidelines) do not need to meet the new labor standards established by the Inflation Reduction to receive the full 30% tax credit. Such projects that begin construction after 2021 and before 2025 can receive the full tax credit of 30%. Note, projects that commence construction on or after January 1, 2025 can receive a tax credits under the new Clean Electricity Investment Tax Credit (48E) described below. 

Projects over 1 MW that begin construction 60 days after the Treasury Secretary releases labor guidelines (January 29, 2023) and no later than January 1, 2025 will receive a base tax credit of 6%. However, projects can qualify for the full 30% tax credit if they ensure that all laborers and mechanics involved in the construction of the project or the maintenance of the project for 5 years after project completion are paid wages at rates not less than prevailing wages. Projects must also ensure that a percentage of total labor hours are performed by qualified apprentices. The percent of hours increases over time to a maximum requirement of 15% in 2024 and thereafter. Note, projects that commence construction on or after January 1, 2025 can receive a tax credits under the new Clean Electricity Investment Tax Credit (48E) described below. 

Bonus Credits

Projects in which 100% of any steel or iron that is a component of the facility and 40% of the manufactured products that are components of the facility were produced in the United States can qualify for the Domestic Content Bonus. For projects that are under 1 MW and projects that are larger than 1 MW and meet the labor requirements specified above, the Domestic Content Bonus increases the tax credit by 10 percentage points. For larger projects that do not meet the labor requirements, the Domestic Content Bonus increases the tax credit by 2 percentage points. Note, the 40% requirement for manufactured products increases over time, eventually requiring 55% domestic content for projects commenced after 2026, The IRS issued Notice 2023-38 in May 2023, which provides further guidance on the domestic content bonus.     

Projects that are located within an energy community can receive the Energy Community Bonus. To qualify, a facility must be located at one of the following: (i) a brownfield site, (ii) a metropolitan or non-metropolitan statistical area which (A) has (or, at any time during the period beginning after December 31, 2009, had) 0.17% or greater direct employment or 25% or greater local tax revenues related to the extraction, processing, transport, or storage of coal, oil, or natural gas, or (B) has an unemployment rate above the national average for the previous year, or (iii) a census tract or a census tract that is adjoining a census tract in which a coal mine has closed after 1999 or a coal-fired electric generating unit was retired after 2009. For projects that are under 1 MW and projects that are larger than 1 MW and meet the labor requirements specified above, the Energy Community Bonus increases the tax credit by 10 percentage points. For larger projects that do not meet the labor requirements, the Energy Community Bonus increases the tax credit by 2 percentage points. 

The Treasury Department issued Notice 2023- 29 in April 2023, which provides initial guidance on the Energy Community Bonus Credit. The Treasury Department later updated and clarified its guidance in June 2023 with Notice 2023-45. The Treasury Department also issued Notice 2023-47 in June 2023, which includes lists of information that taxpayers may use to determine whether they meet certain requirements under the Statistical Area Category or the Coal Closure Category. The Department of Energy has also released a GIS map showing the locations of qualifying energy communities.  

Solar and wind facilities less than 5 MW may also be eligible for low-income bonuses. A project built in a low-income community as defined by the New Markets Tax Credit or on Indian Land can receive an increased tax credit of 10 percentage points. The Department of Energy has also released a GIS map showing qualifying low-income communities. A project associated with a low-income residential building project or a low-income economic benefit project can receive an increased tax credit of 20 percentage points. These bonuses are capped at 1.6 GW of projects per year.  The IRS issued Notice 2023-17 in February 2023, to allocate the cap across different categories of projects. The IRS also issued final regulations in August to provide further guidance on the iow-income communities bonus credit. Additional information can be found on the U.S. Department of Energy's webpage dedicated to the ow-income communities bonus credit.

Eligible Technologies

  • Solar Technologies
  • Fuel Cells
  • Wind Turbines 
  • Geothermal Systems
  • Microturbines
  • Combined Heat and Power (CHP)
  • Offshore Wind
  • Waste Energy Recovery. Qualified waste energy recovery property means property that generates electricity solely from heat from buildings or equipment if the primary purpose of such building or equipment is not the generation of electricity. The term “waste energy recovery property” does not include any property that has a capacity in excess of 50 megawatts.
  • Energy Storage Systems, both paired with generation and installed as a stand-alone system
  • Thermal Energy Storage Systems
  • Qualified Biogas Property
  • Microgrid Controllers
  • Interconnection Property associated with the installation of energy property with a maximum net output of not greater than 5 MW-AC to provide for the transmission or distribution of the electricity produced or stored by such property, and which are properly chargeable to the capital account of the taxpayer.

Credit Monetization

Section 13801 of The Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 also established procedures for other parties to monetize certain tax credits, including this one, for equipment placed in service on or after January 1, 2023 and through December 31, 2032. 

The direct pay option allows non-taxable entities to directly monetize certain tax credits. The provisions apply to nonprofits, a state or political subdivision thereof, the Tennessee Valley Authority, Indian tribal governments (as defined in Section 30D(g)(9)), any Alaska Native Corporation (as defined in Section 3 of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act), or any corporation operating on a cooperative basis which is engaged in furnishing electric energy to persons in rural areas. Such applicable entities can elect to be treated as having made a tax payment equal to the value of the tax credit they would otherwise be eligible to claim. The entity can then claim a refund for the excess taxes they are deemed to have paid. The option effectively makes this tax credit refundable for these entities. 

The act also allows eligible taxpayers to transfer all or a portion of their eligible tax credits to an unrelated taxpayer. Transfers must be reported to IRS and only one transfer is permitted. Must be elected no later than the due date for tax filing for the tax year the tax credit is claimed.

Clean Electricity Investment Tax Credit (48E)

Section 13702 of the Inflation Reduction Act created a new tax credit, the Clean Electricity Investment Tax Credit to replace the traditional ITC for systems placed in service on or after January 1, 2025. The tax credit is functionally similar to the ITC, but is not technology-specific. It applies to all generation facilities and energy storage systems that have an anticipated greenhouse gas emissions rate of zero. The credit amount is generally calculated in the same manner as described above, but will be phased out as the U.S. meets greenhouse gas emission reduction targets. For a project whose construction is commenced in the year following the year in which greenhouse gas emissions from the production of electricity in the United States are equal to or less than 25% of the 2022 levels, the tax credit will not be reduced. However, for projects commenced in the second year following the target being met, the tax credit will be worth 75% of what it would otherwise be. Projects commenced in the third year will receive a credit worth 50%, and all projects commenced after then will not be eligible for a tax credit. 

Program Overview

Implementing Sector: Federal
Category: Financial Incentive
State: Federal
Incentive Type: Corporate Tax Credit
Web Site:
Administrator: U.S. Internal Revenue Service
Start Date:
Eligible Renewable/Other Technologies:
  • Solar Water Heat
  • Solar Space Heat
  • Geothermal Electric
  • Solar Thermal Electric
  • Solar Thermal Process Heat
  • Solar Photovoltaics
  • Wind (All)
  • Geothermal Heat Pumps
  • Municipal Solid Waste
  • Combined Heat & Power
  • Fuel Cells using Non-Renewable Fuels
  • Tidal
  • Wind (Small)
  • Geothermal Direct-Use
  • Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels
  • Microturbines
  • Lithium-ion
  • Offshore Wind
Incentive Amount: Base Credit: 6% - 30% (depending on project status and labor factors, see below)
Domestic Content Bonus: 10% additional
Energy Community Bonus: 10% additional
Low-Income Community Bonus: 10% additional
Low-income Residential Building or Low-Income Economic Benefit Bonus: 20% additional


This program has 1 incentives
Technologies: Solar Water Heat, Solar Space Heat, Geothermal Electric, Solar Thermal Electric, Solar Thermal Process Heat, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Geothermal Heat Pumps, Municipal Solid Waste, Combined Heat & Power, Fuel Cells using Non-Renewable Fuels, Tidal, Wind (Small), Geothermal Direct-Use, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Microturbines, Lithium-ion, Offshore Wind
Sectors: Commercial, Industrial, Investor-Owned Utility, Municipal Utilities, Cooperative Utilities, Agricultural
Parameters: The incentive is 30.00 %


Name: 26 USC § 48
Name: Instructions for IRS Form 3468
Name: IRS Form 3468


Name: Public Information - IRS
Organization: U.S. Internal Revenue Service
Address: 1111 Constitution Avenue, N.W.
Washington DC 20224
Phone: (800) 829-1040

This information is sourced from DSIRE; the most comprehensive source of information on incentives and policies that support renewables and energy efficiency in the United States. Established in 1995, DSIRE is operated by the N.C. Clean Energy Technology Center at N.C. State University.