Average Energy Consumption per Household [2023 U.S Study]

Average Energy Consumption per Household [2023 U.S Study]

Learn about climate and other factors that determine home energy usage.

Hannah Bastawrose (Seeger)
Hannah Bastawrose (Seeger)
4 minutes read • Last update June 2023

If you search online for average energy use, it's hard to get a straight answer. Well, there's a reason for that. There are so many variables that go into energy consumption for a home it is difficult to come up with a number that is accurate. 

The EIA aggregates data for the entire U.S. In 2021, the average annual electricity consumption for a U.S. home was 10,632 kilowatt-hours (kWh). Or about 886 kWh per month.

But the range of electricity usage varies dramatically. Louisiana had the highest annual electricity consumption at 14,302 kWh per home. While Hawaii had the lowest at 6,369 kWh per home. 

We want to set the record straight and help you figure out where your energy usage stands against others. However, we aren't just going to throw an average number at you. We also want to give you the tools to make smarter decisions. 

We will outline the major factors that play into determining energy consumption. This will give you the baseline for what to consider when analyzing your own building. Then we will take a look at averages across the United States. 

Energy Consumption Factors

First, what are the major factors that determine building energy consumption?

Location - Where you are in the world determines a few things: sun location, climate, and geography. Climate includes average temperatures and precipitation over time, wind speeds, and extreme weather events.

Weather - More specifically than climate, what are the day-to-day temperatures and humidity levels. 

Building Construction - The types of building materials that were used heavily determine heat conduction through the exterior, sun radiation, air infiltration, airflow, and natural lighting.

Size - Total square feet and the number of floors matter. A 10,000-square-foot building will most likely be using more energy than a 1,000-square-foot building. However, will a 1,000sf single-story building use more or less energy than a two-story building?

Occupants & Building Purpose - People generate heat and moisture, even while just sitting still. How many people and what they are doing matters to determine how much an HVAC needs to condition a space. 

An office building where people are spread out and sitting at a desk is significantly different than a theater space where people are shoulder to shoulder jumping up and down singing along to their favorite show. 

On the other hand, maybe there aren't that many people but instead a lot of heat-generating equipment in a manufacturing plant. 

Schedule - When people are in the building or when equipment is running is important. If people are in the building in the day versus the night will also determine the amount of heat in the space. This is also important when with looking at utility bills which may have different charge rates for different times of the day. 

Equipment - What is using energy in the building? What's the efficiency? How old is it? How has it been maintained? And when is it operating? 

This item may not be so surprising. What can be surprising is the range in energy consumption between system types. 

Energy Generation & Storage Systems - Last but not least, if there is any on-site energy generation and storage. Whether it is renewable, like solar, or a diesel generator it will determine how much energy is coming from the grid and its cost. 

The Biggest Factor: Climate

Location and weather are first on this list for a reason. The climate you are in plays the biggest role on your energy bills because the system that uses the most energy is typically the Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system. In most buildings, the HVAC system can be about 40% of the total bill. 

This chart shows data of the average energy bill consumption amount per household, per state. 

Average Energy Consumption by State

State Number of Customers Average Monthly Consumption (kWh) Average Price (cents/kWh) Average Monthly Bill ($)
Alabama 2,308,226 1,140 13 148
Alaska 292,451 594 23 134
Arizona 2,953,823 1,048 13 131
Arkansas 1,436,246 1,098 11 124
California 13,883,994 542 23 124
Colorado 2,443,109 704 13 92
Connecticut 1,530,251 713 22 156
Delaware 453,758 950 13 119
District of Columbia 298,337 706 13 92
Florida 9,917,113 1,096 12 130
Georgia 4,560,653 1,072 13 134
Hawaii 443,535 531 33 178
Idaho 806,421 961 10 98
Illinois 5,361,717 728 13 96
Indiana 2,948,803 946 13 127
Iowa 1,417,424 861 13 110
Kansas 1,289,344 890 13 116
Kentucky 2,032,575 1,084 12 125
Louisiana 2,126,155 1,192 11 131
Maine 722,038 584 17 99
Maryland 2,395,954 973 13 128
Massachusetts 2,840,311 596 23 136
Michigan 4,458,038 670 18 118
Minnesota 2,496,406 776 14 105
Mississippi 1,321,576 1,171 12 135
Missouri 2,861,933 1,039 11 119
Montana 531,398 872 11 98
Nebraska 869,656 1,005 11 108
Nevada 1,249,392 959 11 110
New Hampshire 638,267 631 20 125
New Jersey 3,648,914 687 16 112
New Mexico 914,495 646 14 87
New York 7,256,212 599 19 117
North Carolina 4,774,592 1,063 11 120
North Dakota 391,340 1,041 11 113
Ohio 5,041,904 879 13 112
Oklahoma 1,818,813 1,088 11 120
Oregon 1,805,684 936 11 106
Pennsylvania 5,477,367 851 14 117
Rhode Island 446,320 585 22 130
South Carolina 2,426,703 1,078 13 139
South Dakota 412,657 1,019 12 125
Tennessee 3,016,642 1,183 11 131
Texas 11,815,251 1,094 12 132
Utah 1,176,949 775 10 81
Vermont 319,444 567 19 109
Virginia 3,551,532 1,094 12 131
Washington 3,220,813 984 10 99
West Virginia 863,647 1,066 12 130
Wisconsin 2,761,990 690 15 100
Wyoming 278,599 867 11 97


In order to make the data a bit more palatable, we sorted the data from largest to smallest and color-coded it. Red is the highest value and green is the lowest. Lastly, we took the colors and applied them to a map, see map #1.

This is where things get interesting. By applying the heat map style color coding to the map you can instantly see trends across the country. The southeast has the highest bills by energy consumption and the northeast, and California has the lowest. 

This trend is due to two main factors. First, the climate that the state is in. Second, where in the state the majority of the population lives. 

By doing a broad comparison of maps #1 and #2, you can see a pretty clear overlap of the climates with the energy consumption amounts. Not only is the southeast hot, but it is humid as well. If you have ever felt the difference between summer in Southern California versus summer in the south, you'll know this to be true. Moist air holds more heat, making HVAC systems work harder to create a comfortable space. 

Map #1

Map #2


The second factor in determining the energy consumption color of each state is where the majority of the population lives in that state. 

For example, California is very green but on the climate map, it contains a very red, desert landscape that is shared with Arizona. The two major cities are San Fransisco and Los Angeles. 

Both cities are coastal and have mild temperatures year-round. Mild temps allow residents to open windows to let the outside air in for comfort, rather than turning on their AC unit. In California, a majority of the population density is focused in these two areas, making it greener in energy consumption. 

As a comparison, Arizona, right next door, has more red energy consumption. Pheonix, Tuscon, and Mesa are the three largest cities by population in Arizona, all of which are built in the desert. 

Energy Prices

Though Louisiana has the highest energy consumption, they aren't paying the most. Hawaii and Connecticut, two green energy consumption states, have the highest energy bills. This comes down to how much they are paying. 

Energy prices across the country are dependent on four main factors:

  • Energy Source Availability
  • Power Plant Availability 
  • Fuel Cost
  • Energy Demand

Hawaii, a collection of islands 2,500 miles away from the mainland, makes getting anything more difficult. Connecticut, on the other hand, is a bit of an outlier in this data. They are seeing a few other challenges unique to them including transit costs being at the end of the natural gas pipeline and a 10-year contract with the Millstone Power Station.