Note: Section 13302 of The Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 (H.R. 5376) extended the expiration date and modified the phase down of this tax credit. It also made stand-alone energy storage systems eligible for the credit, and biomass heaters ineligible for the credit. Biomass heaters are now eligible for the residential energy efficiency tax credit. The summary below reflects the credit after the enactment of H.R. 5376.
A taxpayer may claim a credit for a system that serves a dwelling unit located in the United States that is owned and used as a residence by the taxpayer. Expenditures with respect to the equipment are treated as made when the installation is completed. If the installation is at a new home, the "placed in service" date is the date of occupancy by the homeowner. Expenditures include labor costs for on-site preparation, assembly or original system installation, and for piping or wiring to interconnect a system to the home. If the federal tax credit exceeds tax liability, the excess amount may be carried forward to the succeeding taxable year. The maximum allowable credit, equipment requirements and other details vary by technology, as outlined below.
Solar water-heating property
Fuel cell property
Small wind-energy property
Geothermal heat pumps
Battery Storage Systems (Standalone Systems)
Significantly, The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 repealed a previous limitation on the use of the credit for eligible projects also supported by "subsidized energy financing." For projects placed in service after December 31, 2008, this limitation no longer applies.
Prior to the enactment of the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022, the federal tax code did not explicitly reference energy storage, so stand-alone energy storage systems did not qualify for the tax credit. However, the IRS issued Private Letter Rulings in 2013 and 2018, which address energy storage paired with PV systems. In both cases, the IRS ruled that the energy storage equipment when paired with PV met the statutory definition of a "qualified solar electric property expenditure," as was eligible for the tax credit. It is important to note that Private Letter Rulings only apply to the taxpayer who requested it, and do not establish precedent. Any taxpayer considering the purchase of an energy storage system should consult their accountant or other tax professional before claiming a tax credit.
Established by The Energy Policy Act of 2005, the federal tax credit for residential energy property initially applied to solar-electric systems, solar water heating systems and fuel cells. The Energy Improvement and Extension Act of 2008 extended the tax credit to small wind-energy systems and geothermal heat pumps, effective January 1, 2008. Other key revisions included an eight-year extension of the credit to December 31, 2016; the ability to take the credit against the alternative minimum tax; and the removal of the $2,000 credit limit for solar-electric systems beginning in 2009. The credit was further enhanced in February 2009 by The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, which removed the maximum credit amount for all eligible technologies (except fuel cells) placed in service after 2008.
|Incentive Type:||Personal Tax Credit|
|Administrator:||U.S. Internal Revenue Service|
|Eligible Renewable/Other Technologies:||
|Incentive Amount:||Varies, see below|
Solar water heating property must be certified by SRCC or a comparable entity endorsed by the state where the system is installed. At least half the energy used to heat the dwelling's water must be from solar.
|Carryover Provisions:||Excess credit generally may be carried forward to next tax year|
|Technologies:||Solar Water Heat, Solar Photovoltaics, Geothermal Heat Pumps, Wind (Small), Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels|
|Parameters:||The incentive is 30.00 % of cost|
|Name:||26 USC § 25D|
|Date Enacted:||8/8/2005 (subsequently amended)|
|Name:||IRS Form 5695: Residential Energy Credits|
|Name:||Instructions for IRS Form 5695: Residential Energy Credits|
|Name:||Public Information - IRS|
|Organization:||U.S. Internal Revenue Service|
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This information is sourced from DSIRE; the most comprehensive source of information on incentives and policies that support renewables and energy efficiency in the United States. Established in 1995, DSIRE is operated by the N.C. Clean Energy Technology Center at N.C. State University.
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